The self-association properties of the yeast nucleosome assembly protein 1 (yNAP1) have been investigated using biochemical and biophysical methods. Protein cross-linking and calibrated gel filtration chromatography of yNAP1 indicate the protein exists as a complex mixture of species at physiologic ionic strength (75-150 mM). Sedimentation velocity reveals a distribution of species of 4.5-12 Svedbergs (S) over a 50-fold range of concentrations. The solution-state complexity is reduced at higher ionic strength, allowing for examination of the fundamental oligomer. Sedimentation equilibrium of a homogeneous 4.5 S population at 500 mM sodium chloride reveals these species to be yNAP1 dimers. These dimers self-associate to form higher order oligomers at more moderate ionic strength. Titration of guanidine hydrochloride converts the higher order oligomers to the homogeneous 4.5 S dimer and then converts the 4.5 S dimers to 2.5 S monomers. Circular dichroism shows that guanidine-mediated dissociation of higher order oligomers into yNAP1 dimers is accompanied by only slight changes in secondary structure. Dissociation of the dimer requires a nearly complete denaturation event.