Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia: comparison of individual therapy, group therapy, and telephone consultations

J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Aug;72(4):653-9. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.4.653.


Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no significant difference across methods of implementation. All 3 treatment modalities produced improvements in sleep that were maintained for 6 months after treatment completion. These results suggest that group therapy and telephone consultations represent cost-effective alternatives to individual therapy for the management of insomnia.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychotherapy, Group / methods*
  • Referral and Consultation*
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / therapy*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Telephone*