Meta-analysis of the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: differences between men and women

J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Aug;72(4):712-22. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.4.712.


Gender differences in the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) were examined in a meta-analytical review of 90 effect sizes obtained from a sample of 21 double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized studies. Although NRT was more effective for men than placebo at 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups, the benefits of NRT for women were clearly evident only at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Giving NRT in conjunction with high-intensity nonpharmacological support was more important for women than men. That is, NRT and low support were efficacious for women at only short-term follow-up, and men benefited from NRT at all the follow-ups regardless of the intensity of the adjunct support. The results suggest that long-term maintenance of NRT treatment gains decrease more rapidly for women than men.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Nicotine / therapeutic use*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / therapy*


  • Nicotine