Reciprocal cross-sensitization between amphetamine and salt appetite

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Aug;78(4):691-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.05.002.


Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated a potentiation of the psychomotor effects of amphetamine in animals with a history of sodium depletion, a process referred to as cross-sensitization. The present studies were done to further develop this finding by assessing multiple effects of amphetamine in rats with and without a history of sodium depletion. For Experiments 1-3, rats were depleted of sodium twice then subjected to one of three experimental procedures [open-field activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA)]. A history of depletion produced an elevation in the psychomotor effects of amphetamine. CPP, used to assess the rewarding properties of amphetamine, developed in rats with a history of depletion but not in controls. The aversive component of amphetamine as measured by CTA was unaffected by previous experience with sodium depletion. Finally, acute salt appetite after depletion was assessed in rats exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine. Animals with a drug history demonstrated a significant elevation in NaCl solution intake after depletion in comparison to controls. Together, the data provide strong evidence for the reciprocal cross-sensitization of salt appetite and response to amphetamine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amphetamine / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Long-Evans
  • Reward
  • Sodium / deficiency
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary*


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Sodium
  • Amphetamine