Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers

J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Aug;15(8):473-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2003.12.012.


The objective of this study was to determine the effect of creatine supplementation on performance and body composition of swimmers. Eighteen swimmers were evaluated in terms of post-performance lactate accumulation, body composition, creatine and creatinine excretion, and serum creatinine concentrations before and after creatine or placebo supplementation. No significant differences were observed in the marks obtained in swimming tests after supplementation, although lactate concentrations were higher in placebo group during this period. In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biological Availability
  • Body Composition / drug effects*
  • Creatine / pharmacokinetics
  • Creatine / pharmacology*
  • Creatine / urine
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Diet
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Energy Intake
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lactates / blood
  • Male
  • Swimming*


  • Lactates
  • Creatinine
  • Creatine