In Drosophila oocytes and neuroblasts, the double-stranded RNA binding protein Staufen assembles into ribonucleoprotein particles, which mediate cytoplasmic mRNA trafficking and translation. Two different mammalian orthologues also appear to reside in distinct RNA-containing particles. To date, relatively little is known about the molecular composition of Staufen-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes. Here, we have used a novel one-step affinity purification protocol to identify components of Staufen 1-containing particles. Whereas the nucleocytoplasmic RNA-binding protein nucleolin is linked to Staufen in an RNA-dependent manner, the association of protein phosphatase 1, the microtubule-dependent motor protein kinesin and several components of the large and small ribosomal subunits with Staufen ribonucleoprotein complexes is RNA-independent. Notably, all these components do not co-purify with a second RNA-binding protein, hnRNPK (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K), demonstrating the high specificity of the purification protocol. Furthermore, pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest a direct interaction between Staufen 1 and the ribosomal protein P0 in vitro as well as in cells. In cell fractionation and sucrose gradient assays, Staufen co-fractionates with intact ribosomes and polysomes, but not with the isolated 40 S ribosomal subunit. Taken together, these findings imply that, in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells, an association with the ribosomal P-stalk protein P0 recruits Staufen 1 into ribosome-containing ribonucleoprotein particles, which also contain kinesin, protein phosphatase 1 and nucleolin.