Five MutS homologs (MSH), which form three heterodimeric protein complexes, have been identified in eukaryotes. While the human hMSH2-hMSH3 and hMSH2-hMSH6 heterodimers operate primarily in mitotic mismatch repair (MMR), the biochemical function(s) of the meiosis-specific hMSH4-hMSH5 heterodimer is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that purified hMSH4-hMSH5 binds uniquely to Holliday Junctions. Holliday Junctions stimulate the hMSH4-hMSH5 ATP hydrolysis (ATPase) activity, which is controlled by Holliday Junction-provoked ADP-->ATP exchange. ATP binding by hMSH4-hMSH5 induces the formation of a hydrolysis-independent sliding clamp that dissociates from the Holliday Junction crossover region, embracing two homologous duplex DNA arms. Fundamental differences between hMSH2-hMSH6 and hMSH4-hMSH5 Holliday Junction recognition are detailed. Our results support the attractive possibility that hMSH4-hMSH5 stabilizes and preserves a meiotic bimolecular double-strand break repair (DSBR) intermediate.