Objective: To identify potential predictors of and factors associated with early neurologic deterioration (END) in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
Methods: Two hundred sixty-six patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH admitted within 12 hours of stroke onset were investigated in a multicenter, prospective study. Sixty-one clinical, biochemical, and neuroimaging variables were registered on admission, and 37 clinical and neuroimaging variables were registered at 48 hours. The volumes of the ICH and peripheral edema on admission and at 48 hours were measured on CT scan. Stroke severity and functional outcome were evaluated with the Canadian Stroke Scale (CSS) and modified Rankin Scale. END was diagnosed when the CSS score decreased > or =1 points between admission and 48 hours. With use of logistic regression analyses, baseline variables that predicted END and factors measured after the early acute phase and associated with END were investigated.
Results: END occurred in 61 (22.9%) patients. Body temperature of >37.5 degrees C (odds ratio [OR] 24.5; 95% CI 4.8 to 125), neutrophil count (by 1,000-unit increase; OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.6), and serum fibrinogen levels of >523 mg/dL (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.9 to 16.2) on admission were independent predictors of END. Among the factors recorded at 48 hours, early ICH growth (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5), intraventricular bleeding (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.0), and highest systolic blood pressure (by 10-unit increase; OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.32) were associated with END in multivariate analyses.
Conclusions: Clinical and biologic markers of the inflammatory reaction on admission are predictors of subsequent END, whereas early ICH growth, intraventricular bleeding, and high systolic blood pressure within 48 hours are factors associated with END in patients with spontaneous ICH.