Fetal cord plasma lipoprotein status in uncomplicated human pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction

Atherosclerosis. 2004 Sep;176(1):181-7. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.04.026.

Abstract

Maternal lipids have been studied extensively in pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but little is known about fetal lipids. We hypothesised that the maternal lipid perturbations in PE and IUGR pregnancies would result in similar alterations in the fetal lipid profile. We performed a cross-sectional case control study of maternal and fetal (delivery venous cord blood) lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in third trimester uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 81) and in pregnancies complicated by PE (n = 23) or IUGR (n = 17). In uncomplicated pregnancies, fetal log total cholesterol (TC), log triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly affected by mode of delivery. Fetal log TC (r = 0.37, P = 0.02), log TG (r = 0.34, P = 0.04) and TC/HDL-C ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.05) were positively correlated with placental weight. Maternal TC (r = 0.35, P = 0.03) and LDL levels (r = 0.36, P = 0.02) were associated with fetal HDL-C levels. Maternal TC was significantly elevated in PE [mean 6.75 (standard deviation 1.14) mmol/L] compared to BMI-matched controls [5.94 (0.89) mmol/L P = 0.04]. In PE, fetal log TC [mean 0.36 (0.23) versus 0.11 (0.15) log mmol/L, P = 0.03], fetal log TG [-0.21 (0.32) versus -0.49 (0.26) log mmol/L, P = 0.02] and fetal TC/HDL-C ratio [3.64 (1.62) versus 1.80 (0.86), P = 0.001] were higher than in controls, after adjustment for mode of delivery. In IUGR, fetal log TG [-0.17 (0.35) versus -0.57 (0.10) log mmol/L, P = 0.01] was higher than controls, after adjustment for mode of delivery. There were no correlations between maternal and fetal lipid levels, or between fetal birth weight and either maternal or fetal lipids in the PE or IUGR groups. We conclude that although fetal lipids do not show a direct correlation with maternal lipids in PE or IUGR, these complications of pregnancy significantly impact upon fetal lipid levels possibly due to increased fetal stress or compromised placental lipid transport. Our findings are potentially pertinent to understanding the future cardiovascular health of the offspring.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Birth Weight
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, VLDL / blood
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / blood*
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / blood*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lipoproteins / blood*
  • Pre-Eclampsia / blood*
  • Pregnancy

Substances

  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Cholesterol, VLDL
  • Lipoproteins