Toll-like receptor pathways in the immune responses to mycobacteria

Microbes Infect. 2004 Aug;6(10):946-59. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2004.04.016.


The control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection depends on recognition of the pathogen and the activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLR) were shown to play a critical role in the recognition of several pathogens. Mycobacterial antigens recognise distinct TLR resulting in rapid activation of cells of the innate immune system. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo investigations, summarised in this review demonstrates TLR-dependent activation of innate immune response, while the induction of adaptive immunity to mycobacteria may be TLR independent.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology*
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis / immunology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / chemistry
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Tuberculosis / immunology*
  • Tuberculosis / microbiology


  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • lipoarabinomannan