Stable transformation of plant cells by particle bombardment/biolistics

Methods Mol Biol. 2005:286:61-78. doi: 10.1385/1-59259-827-7:061.


Particle bombardment, or biolistics, is a commonly used method for genetic transformation of plants and other organisms. Millions of DNA-coated metal particles are shot at target cells or tissues using a biolistic device or gene gun. The DNA elutes off the particles that lodge inside the cells, and a portion may be stably incorporated in the host chromosomes. A protocol for the generation of transgenic grapevines via biolistic transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures is detailed in this chapter. In a typical experiment, transient gene expression averaged nearly 8000 "hits" per bombarded plate. Five months after bombardment, there were nearly five putative transgenic embryos per bombarded plate. About half of the embryos were regenerated into confirmed transgenic plants. The basic bombardment procedures described are applicable to a wide range of plant genotypes, especially those for which embryogenic cell cultures are available. All users of particle bombardment technology will find numerous useful tips to maximize the success of transformation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Biolistics / instrumentation
  • Biolistics / methods*
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Equipment Design
  • Plant Cells
  • Plants / genetics*
  • Transformation, Genetic / genetics*