Laboratory evaluation of mosquito repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochierotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):726-30. doi: 10.1603/0022-2585-41.4.726.


Four synthetic mosquito repellents (Autan [10% KBR3023], IR3535 [7.5%], Off! [15% deet], Skinsations [7% deet]) and eight natural (primarily plant extracts and/or essential oils) product-based repellents (Bite Blocker [2% soybean oil], ByGone, GonE!, Natrapel [10% citronella], Neem Aura, Sunswat, MosquitoSafe [25% geraniol], and Repel [26% p-menthane-3,8-diol]) were tested in the laboratory against Aedes albopictus Skuse, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). When estimated mean protection time (eMPT) responses for each repellent were averaged for all three mosquito species, Autan, Bite Blocker, Off!, and Repel prevented biting for > or =7.2 h; IR3535, MosquitoSafe, and Skinsations for 3.2-4.8 h; and ByGone, Natrapel, GonE, NeemAura, and SunSwat for 0.9-2.3 h. Against Ae. albopictus, the eMPT for Off! and Repel exceeded 7.0 h and ranged from 5.0 to 5.7 h for Autan, Bite Blocker, and Skinsations. Bygone, GonE, NeemAura, and SunSwat provided 0.2 h protection against Ae. albopictus and Oc. triseriatus, whereas Autan, Bite Blocker, Off., and Repel prevented bites by Oc. triseriatus for > or =7.3 h. All 12 repellents provided an eMPT > or =2.8 h against Cx. nigripalpus (maximum: 8.5 h for Bite Blocker). When the average eMPT for each repellent (for all species) was divided by the eMPT for 7% deet (Skinsations), the order of repellent effectiveness and the corresponding repellency index (R,) was Repel (1.7) > Bite Blocker (1.5) = Autan (1.5) = Off! (1.5) > Skinsations (1.0) > IR3535 (0.8) > MosquitoSafe (0.6) > Natrapel (0.5) > Neem Aura (0.3) = SunSwat (0.3) = Bygone (0.3) > GonE (0.2).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aedes*
  • Animals
  • Culex*
  • Culicidae*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insecticides / toxicity*
  • Plant Extracts / toxicity*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Insecticides
  • Plant Extracts