Sexual risk as an outcome of social oppression: data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three U.S. cities

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2004 Aug;10(3):255-67. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.10.3.255.


Based on data from a probability sample of 912 Latino gay men in 3 U.S. cities, a multivariate model of sexual risk was tested, including experiences of homophobia, racism, and poverty as predictors. Participants reported multiple instances of verbal and physical abuse, rude mistreatment, and discrimination on account of their sexual orientation and their race or ethnicity. Many reported experiences of poverty, such as inability to pay for basic necessities of food or shelter. Men who reported more instances of social discrimination and financial hardship were more psychologically distressed and more likely to participate in "difficult" sexual situations, as predicted. Participation in difficult sexual situations mediates the effects of social oppression and psychological distress on sexual risk behavior.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / ethnology*
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / psychology
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / transmission
  • Adult
  • Aggression / psychology
  • HIV Infections / ethnology*
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Hispanic or Latino / ethnology*
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology
  • Homosexuality, Male / ethnology*
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prejudice*
  • Risk-Taking*
  • Safe Sex / ethnology*
  • Safe Sex / psychology
  • Sampling Studies
  • Social Desirability
  • Social Environment
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States
  • Urban Population*