The long-term effect of a plaque control program on tooth mortality, caries and periodontal disease in adults. Results after 30 years of maintenance

J Clin Periodontol. 2004 Sep;31(9):749-57. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00563.x.


Background: The biofilm that forms and remains on tooth surfaces is the main etiological factor in caries and periodontal disease. Prevention of caries and periodontal disease must be based on means that counteract this bacterial plaque.

Objective: To monitor the incidence of tooth loss, caries and attachment loss during a 30-year period in a group of adults who maintained a carefully managed plaque control program. In addition, a comparison was made regarding the oral health status of individuals who, in 1972 and 2002, were 51-65 years old.

Material and methods: In 1971 and 1972, more than 550 subjects were recruited. Three hundred and seventy-five subjects formed a test group and 180 a control group. After 6 years of monitoring, the control group was discontinued but the participants in the test group was maintained in the preventive program and was finally re-examined after 30 years. The following variables were studied at Baseline and after 3, 6, 15 and 30 years: plaque, caries, probing pocket depth, probing attachment level and CPITN. Each patient was given a detailed case presentation and education in self-diagnosis. Once every 2 months during the first 2 years, once every 3-12 months during years 3-30, the participants received, on an individual need basis, additional education in self-diagnosis and self-care focused on proper plaque control measures, including the use of toothbrushes and interdental cleaning devices (brush, dental tape, toothpick). The prophylactic sessions that were handled by a dental hygienist also included (i) plaque disclosure and (ii) professional mechanical tooth cleaning including the use of a fluoride-containing dentifrice/paste.

Results: Few teeth were lost during the 30 years of maintenance; 0.4-1.8 in different age cohorts. The main reason for tooth loss was root fracture; only 21 teeth were lost because of progressive periodontitis or caries. The mean number of new caries lesions was 1.2, 1.7 and 2.1 in the three groups. About 80% of the lesions were classified as recurrent caries. Most sites, buccal sites being the exception, exhibited no sign of attachment loss. Further, on approximal surfaces there was some gain of attachment between 1972 and 2002 in all age groups.

Conclusion: The present study reported on the 30-year outcome of preventive dental treatment in a group of carefully monitored subjects who on a regular basis were encouraged, but also enjoyed and recognized the benefit of, maintaining a high standard of oral hygiene. The incidence of caries and periodontal disease as well as tooth mortality in this subject sample was very small. Since all preventive and treatment efforts during the 30 years were delivered in one private dental office, caution must be exercised when comparisons are made with longitudinal studies that present oral disease data from randomly selected subject samples.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • DMF Index
  • Dental Caries / prevention & control*
  • Dental Plaque / prevention & control*
  • Dental Prophylaxis
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Hygiene / education
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / prevention & control*
  • Periodontal Index
  • Tooth Loss / prevention & control*