With high-resolution quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, it is possible to examine alterations in brain anatomy in vivo and to identify regions affected in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, 27 patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) received a high-resolution MRI scan at baseline and were followed with yearly clinical evaluations. Ten of the 27 patients converted to AD during a 36-month period following the baseline clinical evaluation. Hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes derived from the baseline scan were compared to determine which of these two regions, known to be pathologically involved very early in the course of AD, could best differentiate MCI converters from non-converters. Although both entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were found to be independent predictors of the likelihood of conversion to AD, it was the right hemisphere entorhinal volume that best predicted conversion with a concordance rate of 93.5%.