We recently generated a sodium sulphate cotransporter knock-out mouse (Nas1-/-) which has increased urinary sulphate excretion and hyposulphataemia. To examine the consequences of disturbed sulphate homeostasis in the modulation of mouse behavioural characteristics, Nas1-/- mice were compared with Nas1+/- and Nas1+/+ littermates in a series of behavioural tests. The Nas1-/- mice displayed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased marble burying behaviour (4.33 +/- 0.82 buried) when compared to Nas1+/+ (7.86 +/- 0.44) and Nas1+/- (8.40 +/- 0.37) animals, suggesting that Nas1-/- mice may have decreased object-induced anxiety. The Nas1-/- mice also displayed decreased locomotor activity by moving less distance (1.53 +/- 0.27 m, P < 0.05) in an open-field test when compared to Nas1+/+ (2.31 +/- 0.24 m) and Nas1+/- (2.15 +/- 0.19 m) mice. The three genotypes displayed similar spatiotemporal and ethological behaviours in the elevated-plus maze and open-field test, with the exception of a decreased defecation frequency by the Nas1-/- mice (40% reduction, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between Nas1-/- and Nas1+/+ mice in a rotarod performance test of motor coordination and in the forced swim test assessing (anti-)depressant-like behaviours. This is the first study to demonstrate behavioural abnormalities in the hyposulphataemic Nas1-/- mice.