Folding of helical membrane proteins: the role of polar, GxxxG-like and proline motifs

Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004 Aug;14(4):465-79. doi: 10.1016/


Helical integral membrane proteins share several structural determinants that are widely conserved across their universe. The discovery of common motifs has furthered our understanding of the features that are important to stability in the membrane environment, while simultaneously providing clues about proteins that lack high-resolution structures. Motif analysis also helps to target mutagenesis studies, and other experimental and computational work. Three types of transmembrane motifs have recently seen interesting developments: the GxxxG motif and its like; polar and hydrogen bonding motifs; and proline motifs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Glycine / metabolism
  • Membrane Proteins / chemistry*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Models, Molecular*
  • Proline / metabolism
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Folding*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Thermodynamics


  • Membrane Proteins
  • Proline
  • Glycine