Assessing patient category/dependence systems for determining the nurse/patient ratio in ICU and HDU: a review of approaches

J Nurs Manag. 2004 Sep;12(5):299-308. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2004.00439.x.


Background: A huge range of patient classification systems/tools are used in critical care units to inform workforce planning, however, they are not always applied appropriately. Many of these systems/tools were not originally developed for the purposes of workforce planning and so their use in determining the nurse:patient ratio required in critical care settings raises a number of issues for the organisation and management of these services.

Aim: The aim of this paper is to review the three main assessment systems that are commonly used in critical care settings in the UK and evaluate their effectiveness in accurately determining nurse : patient ratios. If the application of these systems/tools is to enhance care, a thorough understanding of their origins and purpose is necessary. If this is lacking, then decisions relating to workload planning, particularly when calculating nurse : patient ratios, may be flawed.

Conclusions: Patient dependency/classification systems and patient dependency scoring systems for severity of illness are robust measures for predicting morbidity and mortality. However, they are not accurate if used to calculate nurse : patient ratios because they are not designed to measure nursing input. Nursing intensity measures provide a useful framework for calculating the cost of providing a nursing service in critical care and can serve as a measure of nursing input, albeit a fairly basic one. However, many components of the nursing role are not "accounted" for in these measures.

Implications: The implications of these findings for the organization and management of critical care services are discussed. Careful consideration of these areas is vital if a cost efficient and cost-effective critical care service is to be delivered.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living / classification*
  • Critical Care / classification*
  • Critical Care / economics
  • Diagnosis-Related Groups / classification
  • Diagnosis-Related Groups / economics
  • Hospital Costs / statistics & numerical data
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Inpatients / classification*
  • Morbidity
  • Needs Assessment
  • Nurse's Role
  • Nursing Administration Research
  • Nursing Assessment / methods*
  • Nursing Assessment / standards
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / economics
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / supply & distribution*
  • Personnel Staffing and Scheduling / organization & administration*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • United Kingdom
  • Workload / classification*
  • Workload / economics