Ear, nose and throat and respiratory manifestations of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: an increasing conundrum

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;16(9):837-45. doi: 10.1097/00042737-200409000-00004.


Although recent studies suggest that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) may contribute frequently to ear, nose and throat (ENT) and respiratory diseases, the cause-and-effect relationship is far from proven. This article addresses this controversial topic, emphasising recent literature that raises concerns about the credibility of this association and our tests to make this diagnosis. The author believes that these extra-oesophageal symptoms suspected to be secondary to GORD are a conundrum, but selective use of aggressive proton-pump-inhibitor therapeutic trials may help to resolve this issue in our patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications*
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases / diagnosis
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases / etiology*
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / diagnosis
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / etiology*


  • Anti-Ulcer Agents
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors