Balloon angioplasty of native coarctation of the aorta in adolescents and young adults

Am Heart J. 1992 Mar;123(3):674-80. doi: 10.1016/0002-8703(92)90505-p.

Abstract

Balloon angioplasty of native coarctation of the aorta was performed in 35 consecutive adolescents and young adults, aged 14 to 37 years (mean 22.6 +/- 7.1). Twenty-eight (80%) patients had isolated discrete coarctation, six (17.1%) had tubular hypoplasia of the aortic isthmus, and one (2.9%) had hypoplasia of the post-coarctation aorta. The peak systolic pressure gradient decreased from 78.5 +/- 23.9 to 15.7 +/- 11.6 mm Hg (p less than 0.001), and the mean coarctation diameter increased from 4.7 +/- 2.4 to 13.1 +/- 2.7 mm (p less than 0.001) immediately after angioplasty. Patients with discrete-type coarctation had significantly less residual gradient than patients with long-segment tubular coarctation (12.3 +/- 10.7 vs 27.2 +/- 6.6 mm Hg, p less than 0.01). On recatheterization and angiography in 26 patients at 12.6 +/- 1.5 months after dilatation, there was no significant change in gradient (15.5 +/- 13.3 mm Hg) and diameter (13.1 +/- 1.8 mm) from the immediate post-angioplasty results. However, two patients had an increase in gradient and three had small aortic aneurysms with no change in appearance on restudy after 2 years. After 3 to 67 months' (mean 32.7 +/- 19.2) follow-up, all patients showed continued clinical improvement. Hypertension was relieved in 37.5% (12/32) and improved in 59.4% (19/32). Our experience suggests that balloon angioplasty of native aortic coarctation in adolescents and young adults is safe and highly effective with sustained improvement on intermediate-term follow-up.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Angioplasty, Balloon*
  • Aortic Coarctation / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Coarctation / epidemiology
  • Aortic Coarctation / therapy*
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Radiography
  • Time Factors