This paper describes the development of single-domain recombinant antibodies against human telomerase core protein. A His-tagged hTERT spanning main reverse-transcriptase domain of hTERT was purified from host E. coli and used to immunize BALB/c mice. The VHs (heavy chain variable region genes) were amplified by PCR from total RNA of splenocytes and further induced random mutagenesis by DNA shuffling to enrich the repertoire of VH library. All VHs were cloned into phagemid vectors and displayed to generate 4 x 10(10) phage libraries. The candidates carrying VH domains against hTERT were primarily screened through three times of panning procedure on His-tagged hTERT coated microplates, and specific antibodies were further selected by West-Western blot. Two clones, designated as a3 and b8, were confirmed to interact with the target in the solid-phase assay. DNA sequencing proved their mouse VH origin. The purified single-domain antibody of b8 could not only recognize native hTERT, but also neutralize human telomerase activity on inhibitory assay and b8 showed the stronger suppressive efficacy compared with a3. The data demonstrated that the developed single-domain recombinant antibodies were hTERT-specific with high potential of binding and activity inhibition.