The expression of specific growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is of importance during brain development and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. VEGF and TGF-beta1 was studied in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHHC) and nonhemorrhagic hydrocephalus. For determining the interference of inflammatory cytokine interaction with the expression of VEGF and TGF-beta1, IL-6 and IL-10 CSF concentrations were measured. Eighteen neonates who had PHHC and underwent serial reservoir puncture and nine neonates who had congenital nonhemorrhagic hydrocephalus (CHC) and underwent first shunt surgery were included in the study. CSF samples of 11 neonates with lumbar puncture for the exclusion of meningitis served as control subjects. VEGF, TGF-beta1, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations in the CSF were measured by ELISA technique. VEGF concentrations in the CSF of patients with PHHC were significantly higher (median: 377 pg/mL; range: 101-1301 pg/mL) when compared with patients with CHC (median: 66 pg/mL; range: 3-1991; p < 0.001) and control subjects (median: 2 pg/mL; range: 0-12 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). TGF-beta1 CSF concentrations did not differ from control infants in all groups. Median IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in the CSF were found to be low in all patient groups. Increased release of VEGF in the CSF of neonates with PHHC and nonhemorrhagic hydrocephalus may serve as an indicator of brain injury from progressive ventricular dilation. TGF-beta1 CSF concentrations are not elevated in the phase of acute fibroproliferative reactions in patients with PHHC.