Cardiovascular side effects of new antidepressants and antipsychotics: new drugs, old concerns?

Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(20):2463-75. doi: 10.2174/1381612043383872.

Abstract

The cardiovascular toxicity of older generation of tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine) and neuroleptics (e.g. haloperidol, droperidol, thioridazine, pimozide) is well established. These drugs inhibit cardiovascular Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) channels often leading to life-threatening arrhythmia. To overcome the toxicity of old generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, venlafaxin) and several new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) were introduced during the past decade. Although these new compounds are not more effective in treating psychiatric disorders than older medications, they gained incredible popularity since they have been reported to have fewer and more benign side effect profile (including cardiovascular) than predecessors. Surprisingly, an increasing number of case reports have demonstrated that the use of SSRIs and new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) is associated with cases of arrhythmias, prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram (ECG) and orthostatic hypotension in patients lacking cardiovascular disorders, raising new concerns about the putative cardiovascular safety of these compounds. In agreement with these clinical reports these new compounds indeed show marked cardiovascular depressant effects in different mammalian and human cardiovascular preparations by inhibiting cardiac and vascular Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) channels. Taken together, these results suggest that the new generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics also have clinically important cardiac as well as vascular effects. Clinicians should be more vigilant about these potential adverse reactions and ECG control may be suggested during therapy, especially in patients with cardiovascular disorders. The primary goal of this review is to shed light on the recently observed clinically important cardiovascular effects of new antidepressants and antipsychotics and discuss the mechanism beyond this phenomenon.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / adverse effects*
  • Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / classification
  • Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / therapeutic use
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Antipsychotic Agents / classification
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Attitude to Health
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / classification
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors