European clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder -- first upgrade

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;13 Suppl 1:I7-30. doi: 10.1007/s00787-004-1002-x.


Background: The validity of clinical guidelines changes over time, because new evidence-based knowledge and experience develop.

Objective: Hence, the European clinical guidelines on hyperkinetic disorder from 1998 had to be evaluated and modified.

Method: Discussions at the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders (EUNETHYDIS) and iterative critique of each clinical analysis. Guided by evidence-based information and based on evaluation (rather than metaanalysis) of the scientific evidence a group of child psychiatrists and psychologists from several European countries updated the guidelines of 1998. When reliable information is lacking the group gives a clinical consensus when it could be found among themselves.

Results: The group presents here a set of recommendations for the conceptualization and management of hyperkinetic disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Conclusion: A general scheme for practice in Europe could be provided, on behalf of the European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (ESCAP).

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / genetics
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / diagnosis
  • Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / epidemiology
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Comorbidity
  • Conduct Disorder / diagnosis
  • Conduct Disorder / epidemiology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Europe
  • Gene Frequency
  • Guidelines as Topic*
  • Humans
  • Hyperkinesis / diagnosis*
  • Hyperkinesis / epidemiology
  • Hyperkinesis / genetics
  • Hyperkinesis / therapy
  • International Classification of Diseases
  • Learning Disabilities / diagnosis
  • Learning Disabilities / epidemiology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Methylphenidate / therapeutic use
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Prevalence
  • Psychometrics
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics
  • Receptors, Dopamine D4
  • Tic Disorders / diagnosis
  • Tic Disorders / epidemiology


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • DRD4 protein, human
  • Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2
  • Receptors, Dopamine D4
  • Methylphenidate