Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults

Circulation. 2004 Sep 7;110(10):1245-50. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000140677.20606.0E. Epub 2004 Aug 23.


Background: Mortality resulting from coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all causes in persons with diabetes and pre-existing CVD is high; however, these risks compared with those with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are unclear. We examined the impact of MetS on CHD, CVD, and overall mortality among US adults.

Methods and results: In a prospective cohort study, 6255 subjects 30 to 75 years of age (54% female) (representative of 64 million adults in the United States) from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were followed for a mean+/-SD of 13.3+/-3.8 years. MetS was defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. From sample-weighted multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression, compared with those with neither MetS nor prior CVD, age-, gender-, and risk factor-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD mortality were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.42 to 2.89) for those with MetS and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.04 to 5.79) for those with pre-existing CVD. For CVD mortality, HRs were 1.82 (95% CI, 1.40 to 2.37) and 3.14 (95% CI, 2.49 to 3.96), respectively; for overall mortality, HRs were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.66) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.60 to 2.17), respectively. In persons with MetS but without diabetes, risks of CHD and CVD mortality remained elevated. Diabetes predicted all mortality end points. Those with even 1 to 2 MetS risk factors were at increased risk for mortality from CHD and CVD. Moreover, MetS more strongly predicts CHD, CVD, and total mortality than its individual components.

Conclusions: CHD, CVD, and total mortality are significantly higher in US adults with than in those without MetS.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Cause of Death
  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Coronary Disease / etiology
  • Coronary Disease / mortality*
  • Diabetes Complications / mortality
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology