Clinical pharmacokinetics of amlodipine

Clin Pharmacokinet. 1992 Jan;22(1):22-31. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199222010-00003.


Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist drug with distinctive pharmacokinetic characteristics which appear to be attributable to a high degree of ionisation. Following oral administration, bioavailability is 60 to 65% and plasma concentrations rise gradually to peak 6 to 8h after administration. Amlodipine is extensively metabolised in the liver (but there is no significant presystemic or first-pass metabolism) and is slowly cleared with a terminal elimination half-life of 40 to 50h. Volume of distribution is large (21 L/kg) and there is a high degree of protein binding (98%). There is some evidence that age, severe hepatic impairment and severe renal impairment influence the pharmacokinetic profile leading to higher plasma concentrations and longer half-lives. There is no evidence of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Amlodipine shows linear dose-related pharmacokinetic characteristics and, at steady-state, there are relatively small fluctuations in plasma concentrations across a dosage interval. Thus, although structurally related to other dihydropyridine derivatives, amlodipine displays significantly different pharmacokinetic characteristics and is suitable for administration in a single daily dose.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Absorption
  • Amlodipine
  • Angina Pectoris / drug therapy
  • Biological Availability
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / chemistry
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacokinetics*
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use
  • Drug Interactions
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Nifedipine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Nifedipine / chemistry
  • Nifedipine / pharmacokinetics
  • Nifedipine / therapeutic use
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Amlodipine
  • Nifedipine