Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: results from a nationally representative sample

Pain. 2004 Sep;111(1-2):77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2004.06.002.


Investigations of the relationship between pain conditions and psychopathology have largely focused on depression and have been limited by the use of non-representative samples (e.g. clinical samples). The present study utilized data from the Midlife Development in the United States Survey (MIDUS) to investigate associations between three pain conditions and three common psychiatric disorders in a large sample (N = 3,032) representative of adults aged 25-74 in the United States population. MIDUS participants provided reports regarding medical conditions experienced over the past year including arthritis, migraine, and back pain. Participants also completed several diagnostic-specific measures from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form [Int. J. Methods Psychiatr. Res. 7 (1998) 171], which was based on the revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [American Psychiatric Association 1987]. The diagnoses included were depression, panic attacks, and generalized anxiety disorder. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between each pain condition and the psychiatric disorders (Odds Ratios ranged from 1.48 to 3.86). The majority of these associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic variables, the other pain conditions, and other medical conditions. Given the emphasis on depression in the pain literature, it was noteworthy that the associations between the pain conditions and the anxiety disorders were generally larger than those between the pain conditions and depression. These findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating that anxiety disorders warrant further attention in relation to pain. The clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anxiety / epidemiology*
  • Arthritis / epidemiology
  • Back Pain / epidemiology*
  • Back Pain / psychology*
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Migraine Disorders / epidemiology
  • Prevalence