The rise in serum gastrin and pepsinogen I after 5 days' treatment with the proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole (40 mg/day) was examined in eight duodenal ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and compared with eight in whom it had been eradicated. Before treatment, the post-prandial serum gastrin concentrations were higher in the H. pylori-positive than -eradicated patients (p less than 0.05). The median rise in pre-prandial serum gastrin concentrations on treatment was similar in the H. pylori-positive (41%) and -eradicated patients (45%). The rise in post-prandial serum gastrin was also similar in the H. pylori-positive (81%) and -eradicated patients (69%), resulting in significantly higher gastrin concentrations during treatment in the former. The median rise in serum pepsinogen I on treatment was greater in the H. pylori-positive (114%) than in the -eradicated patients (8%), resulting in significantly higher concentrations during treatment in the former. These observations indicate that eradication of H. pylori may be a means of moderating the hypergastrinaemia caused by acid-inhibitory therapy. They also indicate that H. pylori-related hypergastrinaemia is not due to an increase of the antral surface pH by the bacterium's urease activity.