Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was measured in breast cancer patients before and during treatment with tamoxifen, goserelin or aminoglutethimide. 24 out of 27 postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen 20 or 30 mg daily experienced a decrease in plasma IGF-I levels (mean levels before treatment 14.8 nM, during treatment 10.2 nM, P less than 0.001). In 8 out of 12 premenopausal breast cancer patients there was a reduction in plasma IGF-I during treatment with goserelin (mean levels before treatment 23.3 nM, during treatment 19.4 nM, P = 0.052). Contrary, 15 out of 17 postmenopausal women treated with the aromatase inhibitor aminoglutethimide had an increase in plasma IGF-I level (mean level before treatment 17.0 nM, during treatment 21.1 nM, P less than 0.01). These preliminary results indicate that different forms of endocrine treatment of breast cancer may influence plasma IGF-I levels in different directions.