Resveratrol, (3,5,4'-trihydoxystilbene) a compound found in grapes, mulberries, and peanuts, has antimycotic, antiviral, and beneficial cardiovascular and cancer preventive activities. It is being developed for several clinical indications. To evaluate the potential toxicity of resveratrol, rats were administered by gavage 0, 300, 1000, and 3000 mg trans-resveratrol per kilogram body weight per day for 4 weeks. Most of the adverse events occurred in the rats administered 3000 mg per kilogram body weight per day. These included increased clinical signs of toxicity; reduced final body weights and food consumption; elevated BUN, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and albumin; reduced hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell counts; and increased white cell counts. Increases in kidney weights and clinically significant renal lesions, including an increased incidence and severity of nephropathy, were observed. Diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the bladder was considered, equivocal and of limited biological significance. No histological effects on the liver were observed, despite the clinical chemistry changes and increased liver weights in the females. Effects seen in the group administered 1000 mg resveratrol per kilogram body weight per day included reduced body weight gain (females only) and elevated white blood cell count (males only). Plasma resveratrol concentrations in blood collected 1 h after dose administration during week 4 were dose related but were relatively low given the high dosage levels; conjugates were not measured. Under the conditions of this study, the no observed adverse effect level was 300 mg resveratrol per kilogram body weight per day in rats.