Loneliness has been recognized as a public health problem that requires the attention of clinicians and researchers both as a condition in itself and in its relation to other conditions. This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported loneliness, psychological distress, and social support among immigrants. A community survey of 386 recent immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union was conducted using the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (R-UCLA-LS), Talbieh Brief Distress Inventory (TBDI), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). A cross-sectional design, and correlation and factor analyses were used to study the relationship between the studied variables. The distress-related and distress-free patterns of loneliness were distinguished as independent constructs, each with a specific sphere of influence. Distress-related loneliness accounted for 56.3% and distress-free for 18.2% of the total variance in individual loneliness scores. Distress-related loneliness is a generalized negative experience embedded in an array of distress symptoms, while distress-free loneliness appears to be a normal psychological reaction to dissatisfaction with current friend support. An important implication of this study in mental health practice is the sensitivity to these differences when treating recent immigrants.