Effect of pramlintide on symptom, catecholamine, and glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in healthy subjects

Metabolism. 2004 Sep;53(9):1227-32. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2004.04.010.

Abstract

Pramlintide is an analog of the human glucoregulatory hormone amylin. Previous studies have shown no clear evidence that pramlintide modifies the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia; however, a detailed assessment of responses at hypoglycemic thresholds has not been conducted. To further test the effect of pramlintide on symptom, catecholamine, and glucagon responses, a 3-step hypoglycemic clamp was investigated in healthy volunteers. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 18 healthy subjects without diabetes received subcutaneous premeal injections of either placebo or 60 microg pramlintide 3 times daily for 5 consecutive days. On day 6, subjects received study drug with breakfast and, after a 7-hour fast, were connected to a Biostator for a 3-step, 3-hour clamp experiment (insulin infusion rate: 1.0 mU/kg/min; blood glucose targets: 70, 55, and 45 mg/dL). An intravenous (IV) infusion of pramlintide (16 microg/h) or placebo was initiated at t = 60 minutes. At the end of each 60-minute clamp step, autonomic (sweating, palpitations, hunger, etc) and neuroglycopenic (confusion, headache, odd behavior, etc) symptoms were assessed using a validated visual analog scale questionnaire. Blood samples were collected at 30-minute intervals for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, pramlintide, catecholamine, and glucagon concentrations. Intraindividual and group mean responses showed that autonomic symptoms and plasma catecholamine and glucagon concentrations increased progressively during the clamp, with no discernible differences between pramlintide and placebo treatments. Group means for catecholamines at 60 minutes were: epinephrine 233 +/- 42, 892 +/- 85, 2,340 +/- 302 and 202 +/- 25, 774 +/- 114, 2,751 +/- 404 pg/mL and norepinephrine 1,138 +/- 86, 1,236 +/- 77, 1,721 +/- 158 and 1,278 +/- 108, 1,259 +/- 109, 1,580 +/-136 pg/mL (+/- SEM) for placebo- and pramlintide-treated groups at 70, 55, and 45 mg/dL glucose, respectively. Group means for glucagon were 72 +/- 6.3, 98 +/- 11.1, 130 +/- 14.7 and 63 +/- 3.6, 92 +/- 9.4, 120 +/- 16.0 pmol/L (+/- SEM) for placebo- and pramlintide-treated groups at 70, 55, and 45 mg/dL glucose, respectively. These results showed that pramlintide did not impair the symptom, catecholamine, and glucagon responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in healthy subjects.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amyloid / adverse effects
  • Amyloid / blood
  • Amyloid / pharmacology*
  • Autonomic Nervous System / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Catecholamines / blood*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Glucagon / blood*
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / blood*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / blood
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  • Kinetics
  • Male

Substances

  • Amyloid
  • Blood Glucose
  • Catecholamines
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  • Glucagon
  • pramlintide