Limiting circulatory arrest using regional low flow perfusion

J Extra Corpor Technol. 2004 Jun;36(2):133-8.


Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is commonly used for neonatal cardiac surgery. However, prolonged exposure to DHCA is associated with neurologic morbidity. The Norwood operation and aortic arch advancement are procedures that typically require DHCA during surgical correction. Regional low flow perfusion (RLFP) can be used to limit or exclude the use of circulatory arrest. This technique involves cannulation of the innominate or subclavian artery using a Gore-Tex graft, allowing isolated cerebral perfusion. Data was collected in 34 patients undergoing either neonatal aortic arch reconstruction or the Norwood procedure using RLFP. All patients had two arterial pressure monitors using either the umbilical or femoral artery catheters and radial or brachial catheters. Adequacy of perfusion was determined using cerebral saturation, blood flow velocity, mean arterial pressures, and arterial blood gas results. Cerebral saturation and blood flow velocity were monitored using the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (INVOS 5100, Somanetics Corp, Troy, MI) and a transcranial Doppler pulse-wave ultrasound (TCD) (EME Companion, Nicolet Biomedical, Madison, WI), respectively throughout the entire bypass period. Blood gases were monitored using a point of care blood gas analyzer (Gem Premier, Mallinckrodt Sensor System, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI). Data collected revealed total bypass times for repair between 69-348 min, with a mean of 180 min. Regional low flow perfusion times lasted between 6-158 min, with an average of 50 min., and DHCA times ranged from 0-66 min, with a mean of 19 min. The perfusion techniques used allowed patient clinical data to remain consistent throughout the cardiopulmonary bypass period, regardless of lower flows (Figure 1) The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 2.9 %, with no evidence of neurologic injury during follow up. In conclusion, regional low flow cerebral perfusion might benefit patients by limiting the use of circulatory arrest during cardiac surgery. Further study is necessary to evaluate patient outcomes, comparing regional cerebral perfusion and circulatory arrest techniques.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Anastomosis, Surgical
  • Aorta, Thoracic / abnormalities
  • Aorta, Thoracic / surgery*
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods*
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation*
  • Heart Arrest, Induced* / adverse effects
  • Heart Arrest, Induced* / methods
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Hypothermia, Induced / adverse effects
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Regional Blood Flow