This comprehensive study demonstrates highly efficient transduction of a wide variety of human, murine, and monkey cell lines, using a procedure for in vitro packaging of plasmid DNA in recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40) capsid proteins to form pseudovirions. The pseudovirions are encapsidated by the VP1 major capsid protein, with no SV40 sequence requirement, and are able to carry up to 17.7 kb of supercoiled plasmid DNA. We developed a procedure to scale-up production of SV40 pseudovirions, as well as an efficient protocol to concentrate the virions with no loss of activity. We also developed a method that allows transduction of 10 times more cells than the original protocol. This protocol was tested using supercoiled in vitro-packaged plasmid carrying the human multidrug-resistance gene (MDR1 encoding P-glycoprotein; P-gp), or the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene (EGFP) in .45 human lymphoblastoid cells and in K562 human erythroleukemia cells. Multiple transductions at 24-h intervals were shown to increase expression using the EGFP reporter gene. The protocols developed in this study establish in vitro-packaged SV40 pseudovirions as one of the most efficient gene delivery systems.