Tropical eumycetoma is frequently caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The disease is characterised by extensive subcutaneous masses, usually with sinuses draining pus, blood, and fungal grains. The disease affects individuals of all ages, although disability is most severe in adults who work outdoors. Compared with major diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV, disease from M mycetomatis is underestimated but socioeconomically important. Many scientific case reports on mycetoma exist, but fundamental research was lacking until recently. We present a review on developments in the clinical, epidemiological, and diagnostic management of M mycetomatis eumycetoma. We describe newly developed molecular diagnostic and gene typing procedures, and their application for management of patients and environmental research. Fungal susceptibility tests have been developed as well as a mouse model of infection. These advances should greatly further our understanding of the molecular basis of eumycetoma.