The so-called 'response regulators' were originally discovered as common components of the widespread histidine (His)-->aspartate (Asp) phosphorelay signal transduction system in prokaryotes. Through the course of evolution, higher plants have also come to employ such prokaryotic response regulators (RRs) for their own signal transduction, such as the elicitation of plant hormone (e.g. cytokinin) responses. Furthermore, plants have evolved their own atypical variants of response regulators, pseudo response regulators (PRRs), which are used to modulate sophisticated biological processes, including circadian rhythms and other light-signal responses. Recent studies using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have begun to shed light on the interesting functions of these plant response regulators.