Sex difference and possible relationship to microvascular complications of serum prorenin levels in type 2 diabetic patients, measured by a novel antibody-activating direct enzyme kinetic assay

J Diabetes Complications. Sep-Oct 2004;18(5):275-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2004.03.001.


Prorenin, a precursor of renin, was measured in sera from normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients, using a newly developed antibody-activating direct enzyme kinetic assay. Levels of prorenin were examined in relationship to diabetic microangiopathies. The levels of antibody-activating direct prorenin (AAD-PR) were approximately 1.5-fold higher than levels of prorenin measured by a conventional enzyme-activating method. AAD-PR levels were significantly higher in males than in females and in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. Moreover, AAD-PR levels were higher in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and even higher in those with macroalbuminuria. In normoalbuminuric diabetic patients, AAD-PR levels were higher in those with retinopathy. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was seen between the AAD-PR levels and HbA(lc) in normoalbuminuric diabetic subjects without retinopathy. Thus, the determination of circulating serum prorenin measured as AAD-PR is related to glycemia and in type 2 diabetic patients may be a risk marker of diabetic microangiopathy. More studies are necessary to determine whether AAD-PR may actually predict the development of microangiopathy.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / metabolism*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods*
  • Male
  • Microcirculation
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Renin / blood*
  • Renin / immunology
  • Sex Characteristics*


  • Biomarkers
  • Renin