Depression, negative self-image, and suicidal attempts as effects of substance use and substance dependence

J Addict Dis. 2004;23(4):55-71. doi: 10.1300/J069v23n04_05.


The main purpose of this study was to compare, separately by gender, the degree to which cocaine use/abuse, marijuana use/ abuse, and alcohol use/abuse each predict to developing either: a state of depression, or a negative self-image, or a negative personal outlook or for making a suicidal attempt. The study sample of 431 inner-city, African-American subjects, derived from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP), were retrieved for the fourth time, at average age 37.

Results: (1) For the female sample, there were more predictions and relatively stronger predictions from the use/abuse of and from the dependence on illicit drugs, to a subsequent negative self-image and to a negative personal outlook. For the male sample, there were relatively more predictions to making suicide attempts. (2) Of the three types of substances, cocaine use/abuse predicted to the greatest number of negative outcomes; and alcohol use/abuse predicted to no negative outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / psychology
  • Attitude
  • Cohort Studies
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Concept*
  • Sex Factors
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Suicide, Attempted / psychology*
  • Urban Population