Bacterial Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines

Br Med Bull. 2004 Aug 31;70:1-14. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldh021. Print 2004.


Following demonstration that chemical conjugation of polysaccharide antigens to proteins could enhance their immunogenicity in the 1920s, interest in this approach to primary prevention of bacterial infections waned with the development and widespread use of antibiotics. Emergence of resistant bacteria rekindled interest in the late 20th century, which saw extremely rapid development and implementation of several vaccines which are already rapidly changing the epidemiology of childhood infections with Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Others such as Group B streptococcus and Salmonella typhi infections may soon follow. However, several important questions about the immunology of these antigens remain unanswered and the long-term implications of reducing or eliminating the circulation of organisms which are more commonly nasopharyngeal commensals than pathogenic invaders are uncertain.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology
  • Bacterial Infections / prevention & control*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Haemophilus Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Meningococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy
  • Salmonella Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Streptococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / administration & dosage


  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Haemophilus Vaccines
  • Meningococcal Vaccines
  • Salmonella Vaccines
  • Streptococcal Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Conjugate