The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a review of neuroimaging findings

Mol Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;10(1):105-16. doi: 10.1038/


The authors review existing structural and functional neuroimaging studies of patients with bipolar disorder and discuss how these investigations enhance our understanding of the neurophysiology of this illness. Findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that some abnormalities, such as those in prefrontal cortical areas (SGPFC), striatum and amygdala exist early in the course of illness and, therefore, potentially, predate illness onset. In contrast, other abnormalities, such as those found in the cerebellar vermis, lateral ventricles and other prefrontal regions (eg, left inferior), appear to develop with repeated affective episodes, and may represent the effects of illness progression and associated factors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations have revealed abnormalities of membrane and second messenger metabolism, as well as bioenergetics, in striatum and prefrontal cortex. Functional imaging studies report activation differences between bipolar and healthy controls in these same anterior limibic regions. Together, these studies support a model of bipolar disorder that involves dysfunction within subcortical (striatal-thalamic)-prefrontal networks and the associated limbic modulating regions (amygdala, midline cerebellum). These studies suggest that, in bipolar disorder, there may be diminished prefrontal modulation of subcortical and medial temporal structures within the anterior limbic network (eg, amygdala, anterior striatum and thalamus) that results in dysregulation of mood. Future prospective and longitudinal studies focusing on these specific relationships are necessary to clarify the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bipolar Disorder / pathology*
  • Bipolar Disorder / physiopathology
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology*
  • Brain Mapping*
  • Cerebellum / pathology
  • Cerebellum / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Prefrontal Cortex / pathology
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiopathology
  • Temporal Lobe / pathology
  • Temporal Lobe / physiopathology