Predictors of neuropsychiatric damage in systemic lupus erythematosus: data from the Maryland lupus cohort

Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 Dec;43(12):1555-60. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh384. Epub 2004 Sep 1.


Objective: To identify factors predictive of significant neuropsychiatric (NP) damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: One hundred and thirty patients with SLE were followed at the University of Maryland Lupus Clinic from 1992 until 2003. NP manifestations were defined according to the revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions for NP-SLE syndromes. Disease activity was measured using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), organ damage using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index SLICC/ACR (SDI); NP damage (NPDI) was measured with the corresponding domain of the SDI. At end of study period, 64 patients exhibited no NP damage (NPDI = 0) and 66 patients developed significant NP damage (defined as NPDI > or =1). The baseline features for these two patient groups were compared, and variables found to be significantly different were examined by multivariable analyses to determine their contribution to NP damage.

Results: Significant NP damage is common in SLE; mortality is infrequent and the cause of death is unrelated to NP damage. Independent predictors of significant NP damage were disease activity, Caucasian ethnicity and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and anti-Ro/SSA antibody. Certain clinical features at baseline predicted specific NP damage. For example, higher disease activity at baseline was predictive of psychosis and cognitive impairment, anti-dsDNA was predictive of polyneuropathy, and antiphospholipid antibodies were predictive of seizures and cerebrovascular accidents.

Conclusions: In this longitudinal SLE cohort, significant cumulative NP damage occurred. Early aggressive therapy targeted towards NP manifestations may prevent the occurrence of NP damage.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Antinuclear / blood
  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / psychology
  • Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System / etiology*
  • Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System / psychology
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / etiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Seizures / etiology
  • Stroke / etiology


  • Antibodies, Antinuclear
  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • Biomarkers
  • SS-A antibodies