Object recognition impairment in Fmr1 knockout mice is reversed by amphetamine: involvement of dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex

Behav Pharmacol. 2004 Sep;15(5-6):433-42. doi: 10.1097/00008877-200409000-00018.


Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked form of mental retardation including, among others, symptoms such as stereotypic behaviour, hyperactivity, hyperarousal, and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that hyperactivity and/or compromised attentional, cognitive functions may lead to impaired performance in cognitive tasks in Fmr1 knockout mice, the most widely used animal model of fragile X syndrome, and suggested that psychostimulant treatment may improve performance by acting on one or both components. Since hyperactivity and cognitive functions have been suggested to depend on striatal and prefrontal cortex dopaminergic dysfunction, we assessed whether amphetamine produced beneficial, positive effects by acting on dopaminergic corticostriatal systems. Our results show that Fmr1 knockout mice are not able to discriminate between a familiar object and a novel one in the object recognition test, thus showing a clear-cut cognitive impairment that, to date, has been difficult to demonstrate in other cognitive tasks. Amphetamine improved performance of Fmr1 knockout mice, leading to enhanced ability to discriminate novel versus familiar objects, without significantly affecting locomotor activity. In agreement with behavioural data, amphetamine produced a greater increase in dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 knockout compared with the wild-type mice, while a weak striatal dopaminergic response was observed in Fmr1 knockout mice. Our data support the view that the psychostimulant ameliorates performance in Fmr1 knockout mice by improving merely cognitive functions through its action on prefrontal cortical dopamine, irrespective of its action on motor hyperactivity. These results indicate that prefrontal cortical dopamine plays a major role in cognitive impairments characterizing Fmr1 knockout mice, thus pointing to an important aetiological factor in the fragile X syndrome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amphetamine / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology*
  • Cognition Disorders / genetics
  • Discrimination Learning
  • Dopamine / metabolism
  • Dopamine / pharmacology*
  • Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein
  • Fragile X Syndrome / genetics
  • Fragile X Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics*
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology*
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Recognition, Psychology / drug effects*


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Fmr1 protein, mouse
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein
  • Amphetamine
  • Dopamine