NALT- versus Peyer's-patch-mediated mucosal immunity

Nat Rev Immunol. 2004 Sep;4(9):699-710. doi: 10.1038/nri1439.


Recent studies indicate that the mechanism of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) organogenesis is different from that of other lymphoid tissues. NALT has an important role in the induction of mucosal immune responses, including the generation of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells, and IgA-committed B cells. Moreover, intranasal immunization can lead to the induction of antigen-specific protective immunity in both the mucosal and systemic immune compartments. Therefore, a greater understanding of the differences between NALT and other organized lymphoid tissues, such as Peyer's patches, should facilitate the development of nasal vaccines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal / immunology*
  • Lymph Nodes / embryology
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology
  • Lymph Nodes / metabolism
  • Nasopharynx / immunology*
  • Peyer's Patches / embryology
  • Peyer's Patches / immunology*
  • Peyer's Patches / metabolism


  • Cytokines