An insular cortex tumor in a 54-year-old woman showed unequivocal neurocytic features, including open nuclei, distinct nucleoli, and strong synaptophysin immunoreactivity. Ultrastructurally, there were neuritic-type processes with microtubules and hillock-like attachments, and there were dense-core granules. Atypical features were mitotic activity, prominent vasculature, and small foci of necrosis. Peripherally, there was oligodendroglia-like histology with single-cell infiltration of white matter and perineuronal spread in cortex. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with chromosome 1 and 19 probes showed 3 copies of 1q and 2 copies of 1p and showed 2 copies of 19q and 4 copies of 19p. This yielded a 1p-19q loss of heterozygosity pattern similar to that seen in oligodendrogliomas, although the actual chromosomal abnormality is distinct. This tumor, best classified as an atypical neurocytoma with oligodendroglia-like spread, supports suggestions of a close histogenic relationship between oligodendroglial and neurocytic tumors. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying exclusively on loss of heterozygosity analysis for tumor classification.