Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and perceived safety 13 months after September 11

Psychiatr Serv. 2004 Sep;55(9):1061-3. doi: 10.1176/


This study assessed relationships between exposure to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), current major depression, and current safety perceptions in a sample of 212 Pentagon staff members 13 months after the attack. Forty-eight respondents (23 percent) had possible PTSD; eight (4 percent) had probable major depression. Respondents who were directly exposed to the attack were more likely to have PTSD and major depression and were less likely to have a perception of safety at work and in usual activities and travel only. In contrast, respondents with PTSD reported a lower perception of safety at home, at work, and in usual activities and travel.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Perception*
  • Risk Factors
  • Safety*
  • September 11 Terrorist Attacks / psychology*
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / etiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires