Reports on Helicobacter pylori and extragastric diseases have almost doubled this year compared with last year, bearing witness to the persistent scientific interest in this branch of Helicobacter-related pathology. Data belong increasingly to the area of vascular medicine, as well as hematology, dermatology, pediatrics and other fields. Unfortunately, these studies show overall controversial results, due to the impact of several confounding factors, and to the difficulty of recruiting homogeneous patient populations. Furthermore, many studies continue to be conducted on Helicobacter species other than H. pylori, focusing on animal models of gastroenterological illnesses which may retain strong similarities with human diseases. In this paper, taxonomy, detection and characterisation of Helicobacter spp. will be reviewed, together with the most important data issued this year on other Helicobacters and animal models.