A 150-kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L. has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects by inhibiting the effects of protein kinase C alpha, nuclear factor-kappa B and inducible nitric oxide in HCT-116 cells

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;54(6):562-72. doi: 10.1007/s00280-004-0850-x. Epub 2004 Sep 2.


This study was carried out to investigate the anticancer effects of a 150-kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L. (SNL glycoprotein) on spontaneously and experimentally induced tumor promotion in HCT-116 cells. For spontaneously induced tumor promotion, we evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HCT-116 cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), DNA fragmentation, and H33342 and ethidium bromide staining assays. SNL glycoprotein had remarkable, dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects at low concentrations. For experimentally induced tumor promotion, we investigated whether the SNL glycoprotein was able to regulate the activity of protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha), the DNA binding activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), the activity of NF-kappaB protein, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in HCT-116 cells stimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), Western blot analysis, and NO assays. As expected, SNL glycoprotein dose-dependently inhibited PKCalpha translocation, NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, NF-kappaB protein activity and NO production in HCT-116 cells stimulated with TPA (61.68 ng/ml, 100 nM). Collectively, these results suggest that SNL glycoprotein can induce apoptosis through the modulation of signal mediators. Therefore, we speculate that it could be used as a chemotherapy agent even at low concentrations in HCT-116 cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • DNA Fragmentation / drug effects
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Glycoproteins / isolation & purification
  • Glycoproteins / pharmacology*
  • HCT116 Cells
  • Humans
  • Molecular Weight
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Nitric Oxide / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Plant Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Protein Kinase C-alpha
  • Solanum nigrum*
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Transcription Factor RelA


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Glycoproteins
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • glycoprotein 150-kDa, Solanum nigrum
  • Nitric Oxide
  • PRKCA protein, human
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Protein Kinase C-alpha
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate