The term frontotemporal dementia (FTD) encompasses a range of clinical syndromes that are believed not to map reliably onto the spectrum of recognized pathologies. This study reexamines the relationships between clinical and pathological subtypes of FTD in a large series from two centers (n = 61). Clinical subtypes defined were behavioral variant FTD (n = 26), language variants (semantic dementia, n = 9; and progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 8), and motor variants (corticobasal degeneration, n = 9; and motor neuron disease, n = 9), although most cases presented with a combination of behavioral and language problems. Unexpectedly, some behavioral cases (n = 5) had marked amnesia at presentation. The pathological subtypes were those with tau-immunopositive inclusions (with Pick bodies, n = 20; or without, n = 11), those with ubiquitin immunopositive inclusions (n = 16), and those lacking distinctive histology (n = 14). Behavioral symptoms and semantic dementia were associated with a range of pathologies. In contrast, other clinical phenotypes had relatively uniform underlying pathologies: motor neuron disease predicted ubiquitinated inclusions, parkinsonism and apraxia predicted corticobasal pathology, and nonfluent aphasia predicted Pick bodies. Therefore, the pathological substrate can be predicted in a significant proportion of FTD patients, which has important implications for studies targeting mechanistic treatments.