Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Oct 8;323(1):133-41. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.069.


This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H/HeJ mice that have a mutated TLR4 molecule (incapable of signal transduction) in proliferation assays. Rat anti-mouse TLR4 monoclonal antibody (Ab) inhibited the proliferation of BALB/c mouse B cells under GLPS stimulation. Combination of Abs against mouse TLR4 and immunoglobulin (Ig) achieved almost complete inhibition of GLPS-induced B cell proliferation, implying that both membrane Ig and TLR4 are required for GLPS-mediated B cell activation. In addition, GLPS significantly inhibited the binding of mouse peritoneal macrophages with polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, which is known to bind directly with TLR4 on macrophage surface. Moreover, GLPS induced IL-1beta production by peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c, but not C3H/HeJ, mice, suggesting that TLR4 is also involved in GLPS-mediated macrophage activation. We Further identified a unique 31 kDa serum protein and two intracellular proteins (ribosomal protein S7 and a transcriptional coactivator) capable of binding with GLPS in co-precipitation experiments. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Binding, Competitive
  • Cell Division
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Endotoxins / metabolism
  • Female
  • Immunoglobulins / metabolism
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Polysaccharides / chemistry*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / chemistry
  • Receptors, Immunologic / chemistry*
  • Reishi / metabolism*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Signal Transduction
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Cytokines
  • Endotoxins
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Polysaccharides
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptors