The use of anthrax spores as a bioweapon has spurred efforts aimed at identifying key proteins expressed in Bacillus anthracis. Because spore germination and outgrowth occur prior to and are required for disease manifestations, blocking germination and early outgrowth with novel vaccines or inhibitors targeting critical B. anthracis germination and outgrowth-associated factors is a promising strategy in mitigating bioterror. By screening 587 paired protein spots that were isolated from dormant and germinating anthrax spores, respectively, we identified 10 spore proteins with statistically significant germination-associated increases and decreases. It is likely that proteins whose levels change during germination may play key roles in the germination and outgrowth processes, and they should be listed as priority targets for development of prophylactic and therapeutic agents against anthrax. The 31 new proteins identified in this study also complement an emerging proteomic database of B. anthracis.